Five Wonderful Star Forts
On October 7, 1593, the superintendent of the Republic of Venice discovered a revolutionary new type of settlement: Palmanova. The founder of the town is celebrated on the victory of European forces (supplied primarily by the Republic of Venice) over Ottoman Turks in the Battle of Lepanto. October 7 also celebrated Saint Justina, was chosen as the patron saint of the city. Using all the latest army innovations of the 16th century, this small town is a fort in the form of nine pointed star, created by Vincenzo Scamozzi. Among the points of stars, the castle stands out so points could defend one another. A moat that surrounds the city, and 3 big, guarded gates allowed entry. Marcantonio Barbaro headed a group of nobles in Venice chagre build cities, Marcantonio Martinego duty construction, and Giulio Savorgnan act as an advisor. lines outside the fort completed under the Napoleonic domination. From 1815-1866 the city was under Austria, and annexed 50 years later to Italy together with Veneto and Friuli west. In 1960 Palmanova announced a national monument. Professor Edward Wallace Muir Jr. said on Palmanova: “The theorists humanist ideal city developed various planned city that looks fascinating on paper but not very effective as livable space. Along the northeastern border of their land empire, the Venetians started to build in 1593 the best examples of a Renaissance planned town: Palmanova, a fortified city that is designed to defend against strikes from the Ottomans in Bosnia. built ex nihilo by humanists and military specifications, Palmanova be populated by independent merchants, craftsmen, and farmers. Yet, despite the pristine condition and elegant layout of the new town, no one chose to move there, and by 1622 Venetian forced to pardon criminals and offer them free lots and building materials if they will agree to complete the city so began, 18 the completion of this magnificent force planned space, lifeless remains to this day and is only visited by curious schol-ars Renaissance town and bored soldiers are still posted there to keep the Italian border.
Bourtange, The Netherlands
Bourtange (53 ° 00’24 “N 7 ° 11’31” E / 53.0066 ° N 7.1920 ° E / 53.0066; 7.1920) was the star fort and village in the province of Groningen Netherlands Westerwolde. It is part of the municipality Vlagtwedde, and is positioned approximately 32 km northeast of Emmen. Kubu was originally created during the Eighty Years’ War (c. 1568-1648) when William I of Orange desired to control the only road between Germany and the city of Groningen which is controlled by Spain. The road follows the ridge of sand (Tange) through the marshes. Then, around 1594, Bourtange be part of the fort on the border between the northern provinces (Groningen, Friesland, Drenthe) and Germany. Bourtange was a separate municipality until 1822, when it joined the Vlagtwedde. In 1851 the castle star and Bourtange be given a normal village. Around 1960 in the village living conditions deteriorated and it was determined that it will be restructured to its Bourtange 1740-1750. Today’s open air museum. In 2001, the city had 267 Bourtange soul. The built-up area of the town was 0.21 km ², and contained 133 residences. The statistical area “Bourtange”, which also can include the surrounding countryside, has a population of about 530.
Almeida (sometimes Almeyda in archaic spelling) is a common name in the Portuguese language, namely in Portugal and Brazil. It was originally a toponym, derived from the town of Almeida (Beira Alta, Portugal).
Saint-Martin-de-RE has a broad defense, reflecting the strategic importance of the Ile de Re. During the Wars of Religion in 1620, Cardinal Richelieu ordered the fortified island as a counterweight to the nearby town of La Rochelle Protestants in mainland France. This includes a fortress in Saint Martin. Having already conquered La Rochelle, Saint-Martin’s fortress largely demolished to eliminate the potential threat to the kingdom. In 1627, a British invasion force under the command of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham attacked the small island in order to relieve the Siege of La Rochelle. After three months of siege combat in Saint-Martin-de-RE against the French under Marshal Toiras, Duke was forced to withdraw in defeat. Later, in the 1670s, French engineer, Vauban assigned to examine and overhaul the island’s defenses and, as a result, Saint Martin surrounded by walls and embankments are spacious and modern. This is done in three main phases anding in 1702 and the end result is a closed city to accommodate the islanders for siege
Naarden, The Netherlands
Naarden (About this sound pronunciation) is a municipality and a town in the Gooi territory in the province of North Holland in the Netherlands. Naarden is an example of a Spanish star fort, complete with fortified walls and a moat. The walls and the moat have been restored and are in very good condition. Naarden given city rights in 1300 (the only city in Het Gooi have done) and then developed into a garrison town fortressed the textile industry. Naarden is the home of the Dutch Fortress Museum (Nederlands Vestingmuseum). Every year Naarden hosts national festival and photos, on Good Friday, the performance of Bach’s St Matthew Passion at the local church, called the Great St Vitus Church or the Church. Despite the importance of earlier, Naarden population size surpassed by Hilversum in the 18th century and today is smaller than its neighbor Bussum.